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Amitraz is a formamidine derivative pesticide that is widely used in the preservation of agricultural products and the control of ectoparasites in animals. Due to its lipophilic property, amitraz is rapidly absorbed from the applied area, and may cause poisonings in horses and humans, and especially in cats and dogs. Therefore, its use is not recommended in these animals (especially for small dog breeds such as Chihuahua, Pomeranian) and diabetic ones. It has a long half-life and is primarily excreted in urine. The toxic effects are mainly related to the stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors, and the inhibition of the monoamine oxidase enzyme along with prostaglandins. The most common signs of toxicity are central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, mydriasis, hypothermia, vomiting, diarrhea, and coma. Chronic poisoning cause reproductive and developmental toxicity through endocrine disrupting effects. The diagnosis is based on anamnesis, clinical signs, and the detection of amitraz and its metabolites in biological fluids. For the treatment of amitraz poisoning, α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists (yohimbine or atipamezole) along with symptomatic and supportive substances are suggested.




Filazi, A., & Yurdakok-Dikmen, B. (2018). Amitraz. In Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles: Third Edition (pp. 525–531). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811410-0.00041-6

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