Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and toxicity test with D. magna were conducted on leachates from an industrial waste landfill site in Japan. Physicochemical analysis detected heavy metals at concentrations insufficient to account for the observed acute toxicity. The graduated pH and aeration manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia. Based on joint toxicity with additive effects of unionized ammonia and ammonium ions, the unionized ammonia toxicity () was calculated as 3.3 ppm, and the toxicity of ammonium ions () was calculated as 222 ppm. Then, the contribution of ammonia toxicity in the landfill leachate toxicity was calculated as 58.7 vol% of the total toxicity in the landfill leachate. Other specific toxicants masked by ammonia's toxicity were detected. Contribution rate of the toxicants other than by ammonia was 41.3 vol% of the total toxicity of the landfill leachate.
Osada, T., Nemoto, K., Nakanishi, H., Hatano, A., Shoji, R., Naruoka, T., & Yamada, M. (2011). Analysis of Ammonia Toxicity in Landfill Leachates. ISRN Toxicology, 2011, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/954626