Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) of large parts is very challenging technology for aerospace industry. Due to high productivity of several kilograms per hour and nearly unlimited part size, this technology becomes competitive to traditional production technologies of casting, welding and rolling. One of the main problem of large parts manufacturing is the high distortion. Estimation of residual stresses and distortion is necessary to obtain required dimensional accuracy and prevent fracture of additively manufactured parts. Effects of layer-by-layer evolution of stresses and strains was studied by finite-element simulation. It was shown that distortion of axially symmetrical parts can be successfully predicted by the developed simulation procedure. It was established that the effect of increasing cylinder radius is to increase residual radial displacement and curvature of the sidewall. The highest tension hoop and axial stress amounted to 1.15-1.2 times of yield stress near the substrate. If deposited material have a weak ductility (e.g. titanium alloys) there is a high probability that the fracture could occurs in the sidewall near the substrate. Several experimental trials was carried out for validation of accuracy of developed simulation procedure. Shape of build parts was analysed by 3D laser scanner.
Turichin, G., Zemlyakov, E., Babkin, K., Ivanov, S., & Vildanov, A. (2018). Analysis of distortion during laser metal deposition of large parts. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 74, pp. 154–157). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2018.08.068