The early region 4 (E4) of porcine adenovirus (PAdV)-3, located at the right-hand end of the genome is transcribed in a leftward direction and has the potential to encode seven (p1-p7) open reading frames (ORFs). To determine the role of each protein in viral replication, we constructed full-length PAdV-3 genomic clones containing deletions of individual E4 ORF or combined deletions of the neighboring ORFs. Transfection of swine testicular (ST) cells with individual E4 mutant plasmid DNAs generated PAdV-3 E4 mutant viruses except with plasmids containing a deletion of ORF p3, ORF p2+ p3 or ORF p3+ p4. Each of the mutants was further analyzed for growth kinetics, and early/late protein synthesis. Mutant viruses carrying deletions in ORF p1, ORF p2 or ORF p4 showed growth characteristics similar to that of wild-type PAdV-3. Early/late protein synthesis was also indistinguishable from that of wild-type PAdV-3. However, mutant viruses carrying deletions in ORF p5, ORF p6 or ORF p7 showed a modest effect in their ability to grow in porcine cells and express early proteins. These results suggest that the E4 ORF p3 (showing low homology with non-essential human adenovirus (HAdV)-9-E4 ORF1 encoded proteins) is essential for the replication of PAdV-3 in vitro. In contrast, the E4 ORF p7 (showing homology to essential HAdV-2 34 kDa protein) is not essential for replication of PAdV-3 in vitro. Moreover, successful deletion of 1.957 kb fragment in E4 region increased the available capacity of replication-competent PAdV-3 (E3 + E4 deleted) to ∼4.3 kb and that of replication-defective PAdV-3 (E1 + E3 + E4 deleted) to ∼7 kb. This is extremely useful for the construction of PAdV-3 vectors that express multiple genes and/or regulatory elements for gene therapy and vaccination. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, X., Babiuk, L. A., & Tikoo, S. K. (2004). Analysis of early region 4 of porcine adenovirus type 3. Virus Research, 104(2), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2004.04.011