© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. In this paper, an analytical and accurate in-to-out (I2O) human body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz is derived based on a 3D heterogeneous human body model under safety constraints.The bit error rate (BER) performance for this channel using multiple efficient modulation schemes is investigated and the link budget is analyzed based on a predetermined satisfactory BER of 10 -3 .In addition, an incremental relay-based cooperative quality of service-aware (QoS-aware) routing protocol for the proposed I2O WBAN is presented and compared with an existing scheme.Linear programming QoS metric expressions are derived and employed to maximize the network lifetime, throughput, minimizing delay.Results show that binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) outperforms other modulation techniques for the proposed I2O WBAN systems, enabling the support of a 30 Mbps data transmission rate up to 1.6 m and affording more reliable communication links when the transmitter power is increased.Moreover, the proposed incremental cooperative routing protocol outperforms the existing two-relay technique in terms of energy efficiency.Open issues and on-going research within the I2O WBAN area are presented and discussed as an inspiration towards developments in health IoT applications.
Liao, Y., Leeson, M., Higgins, M., & Bai, C. (2016). Analysis of In-to-Out Wireless Body Area Network Systems: Towards QoS-Aware Health Internet of Things Applications. Electronics, 5(4), 38. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics5030038