Public utility buses are one of the primary means of transportation in the Philippines. City buses in Metro Manila use placards as bus signage to indicate destination. These city buses do not observe a uniform arrangement of placards displayed across its windshield. Due to a number of placards in buses, heavy visual workload in scanning bus signage becomes one of the causes of fatigue in daily commuting. The study aims to determine an ergonomic arrangement of bus signage for Filipinos through visual workload analysis. This can possibly decrease fatigue due to visual workload as a commuter scans through the signage of a moving bus. Moreover, this aims to identify which signage arrangement would result to the commuter's least reaction time – the length of time to select the bus showing the desired destination. Blink frequencies and reaction times of 30 regular commuters were studied under three Philippine bus signage configurations – vertical, horizontal and random arrangement – with six placards per configuration. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, using the mean of the random arrangement results as the test median, showed that both the blink rate and reaction time for horizontal arrangement resulted to significant and desired differences with the median. On the other hand, values for vertical arrangement only showed significance in the test of blink rates. Hence, it is concluded that horizontal arrangement would be the most ergonomic for the said population among the three signage patterns.
Bautista, D. P., Lazares, S. F. V., Tamayo, D. G., & Portus, A. J. (2015). Analysis of Visual Workload while Scanning through Philippine Bus Signage. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 3092–3099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.856