Objective: Polymorphisms in several genes of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated as risk factors for myocardial infarction and ischaemic heart disease. In particular, it has been suggested that the angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms might act synergistically to increase the risk of myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism and angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphisms and ischaemic heart disease. Methods: We screened 331 white European patients who were recruited for routine angiographic investigation of chest pain, and 287 healthy white European controls for the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D and angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms, and related the genotype frequencies to angiotensin converting enzyme levels and the clinical phenotypes of atheroma and history of myocardial infarction. Results: Angiotensin converting enzyme levels were related to I/D polymorphism but not to angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphism genotypes. I/D polymorphism and angiotensin II type 1 receptor genotypes did not relate individually to risk of myocardial infarction or atheroma in univariate or multivariate analysis. However, evidence of a synergistic relationship between the AC/II and CC/DD genotypes and coronary stenosis in the major arteries was found. No evidence of any relationship between these polymorphisms and history of myocardial infarction by World Health organisation (WHO) criteria was detected. Conclusion: These findings suggest that there is a weak relationship between the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D and angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms and coronary atheroma, but no evidence of a relationship with history of myocardial infarction.
Rice, G. I., Foy, C. A., & Grant, P. J. (1999). Angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1-receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of ischaemic heart disease. Cardiovascular Research, 41(3), 746–753. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6363(98)00246-6