© 2016 Chen et al. Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) resistance to antimicrobial has been a major concern in China, and epidemiological data on N. gonorrhoeae resistance are not well understood. This meta-analysis was aimed at summarizing the evidence on N. gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin in China. Methods: Two researchers independently searched five databases to identify studies on N. gonorrhoeae resistance to antimicrobials from the databases' inception to November 7, 2014. A random-effects model was used to estimate the antimicrobial resistance rates and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Publication bias was assessed with the Begg rank correlation test and the Egger test. Results: We included 127 studies in our synthesis reporting antimicrobial resistance. Our analyses demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillin and tetracycline respectively increased from 74.41 % (95 % CI: 64.1-84.7 %) and 68.3 % (95 % CI: 58.7-78.0 %) in 2000 to 84.2 % (95 % CI: 79.7-88.8 %) and 82.4 % (95 % CI: 79.9-84.7 %) in 2012. N. gonorrhoeae resistance to ciprofloxacin experienced a steady increase from 12.7 % (95 % CI, 8.6-16.7 %) in 1995 and reached 93.8 % (95 % CI: 91.9-95.7 %) in 2003. N. gonorrhoeae resistance to ceftriaxone was 1.7 % (95 % CI: 0.5-5.7 %) before 1995 and 0.5 % (95 % CI: 0.2 -1.4 %) in 2012, and N. gonorrhoeae resistance to spectinomycin was less than 2 % from 1995 to 2012. Conclusions: N. gonorrhoeae resistance rates to penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were high in China. Ceftriaxone and spectinomycin remained effective therapy for the treatment of gonorrhea. It is essential to strengthen N. gonorrhoeae resistance surveillance and update treatment guidelines timely.
Chen, Y., Gong, Y., Yang, T., Song, X., Li, J., Gan, Y., … Lu, Z. (2016). Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in China: A meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1435-0