The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox) complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox) complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC 50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC 50 values, except for 72 h where the IC 50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox) complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC 50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox) complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox) complex. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Ćurčić, M. G., Stanković, M. S., Mrkalić, E. M., Matović, Z. D., Banković, D. D., Cvetković, D. M., … Marković, S. D. (2012). Antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of methanolic extracts from ligustrum vulgare L. as an individual treatment and in combination with palladium complex. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(2), 2521–2534. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms13022521