APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a newly discovered cellular factor of innate immunity that inhibits HIV replication in vitro. Whether hA3G confers protection against HIV in vivo is not known. To investigate the possible anti-HIV activity of hA3G in vivo, we examined hA3G mRNA abundance in primary human cells isolated from either HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected individuals, and found that hA3G mRNA levels follow a hierarchical order of long-term nonprogressors>HIV-uninfected>Progressors; and, hA3G mRNA abundance is correlated with surrogates of HIV disease progression: viral load and CD4 count. Another group later confirmed that HIV-infected subjects have lower hA3G mRNA levels than HIV-uninfected controls, but did not find correlations between hA3G mRNA levels and viral load or CD4 count. These conflicting results indicate that a more comprehensive, conclusive investigation of hA3G expression levels in various patient cohorts is urgently needed.
Jin, X., Wu, H., & Smith, H. (2007). APOBEC3G levels predict rates of progression to AIDS. Retrovirology, 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-4-20