Oil and gas production from shale formations stimulated by hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking") is an abundant source of domestically available energy for the United States of America. Today, shale formations are mostly fracked using fresh water or brine which induces large volumes of water to manage. The use of CO2 is an alternative fracking option and appears to have several benefits, as (1) it does not require water but carbon dioxide; as (2) injection of carbon dioxide could enhance the gas recovery; and as (3) carbon dioxide could be adsorbed onto the shale surface to be permanently stored in the formation. We performed adsorption experiments to assess the quantity of carbon dioxide that could be adsorbed onto shale.
Lafortune, S., Adelise, F., Rhenals Garrido, D. R., & Pokryszka, Z. (2014). Assessing CO2 adsorption capacities onto shales through gravimetric experiments: A first step in the feasibility study of coupling “fracking” with carbon storage. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 63, pp. 5933–5937). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.629