The slow steaming approach is increasing in popularity for commercial vessels, as it provides a method of reducing fuel use, and therefore operating costs, in the current economic climate. It is very important to be able to evaluate a ship's response to waves, because any added resistance or loss of speed may cause delays or course alterations, leading to financial losses. Potential flow theory based linear strip theory is still a widely used method among naval architects, due to its fast solutions with sufficient engineering accuracy. The key objective of this study is to predict the ship motions and added resistance of the S-175 containership, and to estimate the increase in effective power and fuel consumption due to its operation in regular and irregular head seas. The analyses were performed at design and slow steaming speeds, for a range of wave conditions in regular seas, and for three different sea states in irregular seas. The results obtained at a ship speed corresponding to Froude number 0.25 were compared to available experimental data and were found to be in good agreement with the experiments. The numerical analyses were carried out using VERES, which is based on potential flow theory.
Tezdogan, T., Incecik, A., Turan, O., & Kellett, P. (2016). Assessing the Impact of a Slow Steaming Approach on Reducing the Fuel Consumption of a Containership Advancing in Head Seas. In Transportation Research Procedia (Vol. 14, pp. 1659–1668). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.131