© 2016 Tanaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background: Several experimental studies have demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) may induce myocardial hypertrophy via pathways independent of α-Klotho, its co-factor in the induction of phosphaturia. On the other hand, few studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between FGF23 level and left ventricular hypertrophy among subjects without chronic kidney disease (CKD; i.e., CKD stage G1 or G2). Purpose: To investigate the data from 903 patients admitted to the cardiology department with various degrees of renal function, including 234 patients with CKD stage G1/G2. Methods and Results: Serum levels of full-length FGF23 and α-Klotho were determined by enzyme immunoassay. After adjustment for sex, age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the highest FGF23 tertile was significantly associated with left ventricular hypertrophy among patients with CKD stage G1/G2 and those with CKD stage G3a/G3b/G4 as compared with the lowest FGF23 tertile, and the association retained significance after further adjustment for serum levels of corrected calcium, inorganic phosphate, and C-reactive protein, as well as diuretic use, history of hypertension, and systolic blood pressure. FGF23 was also associated with low left ventricular ejection fraction among patients with CKD stage G1/G2 and those with CKD stage G3a/G3b/G4 after adjusting for age, sex, eGFR, corrected calcium, and inorganic phosphate. On the other hand, compared with the highest α-Klotho tertile, the lowest α-Klotho tertile was associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction only among patients with CKD stage G3b and stage G3a, respectively. Conclusions: An association between FGF23 and cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction was observed among patients without CKD as well as those with CKD after multivariate adjustment. However, the association between α-Klotho and cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction was significant only among patients with CKD G3b and G3a, respectively.
Tanaka, S., Fujita, S. I., Kizawa, S., Morita, H., & Ishizaka, N. (2016). Association between FGF23, α-Klotho, and cardiac abnormalities among patients with various chronic kidney disease stages. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156860