BACKGROUND Tuberculosis and HIV remain a public health problem in developed countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence trends of pulmonary TB and HIV comorbidity and treatment outcomes according to HIV during the period 2006 to 2014 in the Mexican Institute of Social Security. METHODS Analyzed data from this registry including pulmonary tuberculosis patients aged 15 years and older who had been diagnosed during the years 2006 to 2014 in the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The outcomes that we use were incidents rate, failure to treatment and death. Regression models were used to quantify associations between pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV mortality. RESULTS During the study period, 31,352 patients were registered with pulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence rate observed during 2014 was 11.6 case of PTB per 100,000. The incidence rate for PTB and HIV was 0.345 per 100,000. The PTB incidence rate decreased by 0.07%, differences found in the PTB incidence rate by sex since in women decreased by 5.52% and in man increase by 3.62%. The pulmonary TB with HIV incidence rate decreased by 16.3% during the study period (In women increase 4.81% and in man decrease 21.6%). Analysis of PTB associated with HIV by age groups revealed that the highest incidence rates were observed for the 30 to 44 years old group. Meanwhile, the highest incidence rates of PTB without HIV occurred among the 60 and more years old individuals. We did not find statistically significant differences between treatment failure and PTB patients with HIV and without HIV. The treatment failure was associated with sex and the region of the patient. We found a strong association between HIV and the probability of dying during treatment. Our data suggested that patients suffering from both conditions (PTB and HIV) have no difference in the probability of failure of treatment contrary to other reports. Hypotheses to this is adherence to tuberculosis treatment with people living with HIV/AIDS, detection of PTB in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS or PTB patients on antiretroviral therapy were more likely to have successful treatment outcomes than those not on antiretroviral treatment. We have found that PTB and HIV increases the probability of dying during treatment compared to the cases of PTB without HIV, consistent with published other study HIV increases the mortality rates associated with PTB. CONCLUSIONS No association between pulmonary tuberculosis with HIV and treatment failure was observed, but pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV increases the probability of dying during treatment compared to the pulmonary tuberculosis cases without HIV.
Cabrera-Gayt�n, D. A., Del Rosario Niebla-Fuentes, M., Padilla-Vel�zquez, R., Valle-Alvarado, G., Arriaga-Nieto, L., Rojas-Mendoza, T., … Vallejos-Par�s, A. (2016). Association of pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV in the Mexican Institute of Social Security, 2006-2014. PLoS ONE, 11(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168559