Activation of the human visual motion area V5/MT was previously thought to be the basis of the motion aftereffect. New findings suggest that previous observations were confounded by attention and arousal, providing evidence that adaptation of directionally selective neurons in area V5/MT represents the fundamental substrate for the motion aftereffect.
Rees, G. (2001). Attention, adaptation, and the motion aftereffect. Neuron. Cell Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00457-3