Autacoid 14S,21R-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid counteracts diabetic impairment of macrophage prohealing functions

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Impaired macrophage functions imposed by diabetic complications and the suppressed formation of 14S,21R-dihydroxydocosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid (14S,21R-diHDHA) in wounds contribute significantly to deficient wound healing in diabetics, but how are macrophage functions and 14S,21R-diHDHA formation associated? We studied 14S,21R-diHDHA generation from macrophages using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The role in macrophage-mediated wound healing functions was determined using a murine splinted excisional wound healing model and in vitro assays. 14S,21R-diHDHA acts as a macrophage-generated autacoid, and its attenuated formation in macrophages of diabetic db/db mice was accompanied by impairment of macrophage prohealing functions. 14S,21R-diHDHA restored db/db macrophage-impaired prohealing functions by promoting wound re-epithelialization, formulation of granulation tissue, and vascularization. Additionally, 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient macrophages, which are unable to produce 14S,21R-diHDHA, exhibited impaired prohealing functions, which also were restored by 14S,21R-diHDHA treatment. The molecular mechanism for 14S,21R-diHDHA-induced recovery of impaired prohealing functions of db/db macrophages involves enhancing their secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor BB, decreasing hyperglycemia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and increasing IL-10 expression under inflammatory stimulation. Taken together, these results indicate that deficiency of 14S,21R-diHDHA formation by diabetic macrophages contributes to their impaired prohealing functions. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into wound healing in diabetics and suggest the possibility of using autologous macrophages/monocytes, treated with 14S,21R-diHDHA, or related compounds, to promote diabetes-impaired wound healing. © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology.




Tian, H., Lu, Y., Shah, S. P., & Hong, S. (2011). Autacoid 14S,21R-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid counteracts diabetic impairment of macrophage prohealing functions. American Journal of Pathology, 179(4), 1780–1791.

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