Mutations in p53, especially gain of function (GOF) mutations, are highly frequent in lung cancers and are known to facilitate tumor aggressiveness. Yet, the links between mutant GOF-p53 and lung cancers are not well established. In the present study, we set to examine how we can better sensitize resistant GOF-p53 lung cancer cells through modulation of cellular protein degradation machineries, proteasome and autophagy. H1299 p53 null lung cancer cells were stably transfected with R273H mutant GOF-p53 or wild-type (wt) p53 or empty vectors. The presence of R273H-P53 conferred the cancer cells with drug resistance not only against the widely used chemotherapeutic agents like cisplatin (CDDP) or 5-flurouracil (5-FU) but also against potent alternative modes of therapy like proteasomal inhibition. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new strategies that can overcome GOF-p53 induced drug resistance and prolong patient survival following failure of standard therapies. We observed that the proteasomal inhibitor, peptide aldehyde N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal (commonly termed as ALLN), caused an activation of cellular homeostatic machinery, autophagy in R273H-P53 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine (CQ) alone or in combination with ALLN failed to induce enhanced cell death in the R273H-P53 cells; however, in contrast, an activation of autophagy by serum starvation or rapamycin increased sensitivity of cells to ALLN-induced cytotoxicity. An activated autophagy was associated with increased ROS and ERK signaling and an inhibition of either ROS or ERK signaling resulted in reduced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, inhibition of GOF-p53 was found to enhance autophagy resulting in increased cell death. Our findings provide novel insights pertaining to mechanisms by which a GOF-p53 harboring lung cancer cell is better sensitized, which can lead to the development of advanced therapy against resistant lung cancer cells.
Saini, H., Hakeem, I., Mukherjee, S., Chowdhury, S., & Chowdhury, R. (2019). Autophagy regulated by gain of function mutant p53 Enhances proteasomal inhibitor-mediated cell death through induction of ros and erk in lung cancer cells. Journal of Oncology, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6164807