The avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can be highly contagious to poultry and a zoonotic threat to humans. Since the memory CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in chickens to AIV proteins have not been defined, these responses to H5N9 AIV hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins were evaluated by ex vivo stimulation with virus infected non-professional antigen presenting cells. Secretion of IFNγ by activated T lymphocytes was evaluated through macrophage induction of nitric oxide. AIV specific, MHC-I restricted memory CD8+ T lymphocyte responses to NP and HA were observed 3 to 9 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). The responses specific to NP were greater than those to HA with maximum responses being observed at 5 weeks p.i. followed by a decline to weakly detectable levels by 9 weeks p.i. The cross-reaction of T lymphocytes to a heterologous H7N2 AIV strain demonstrated their ability to respond to a broader range of AIV. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Singh, S., Briles, W. E., Lupiani, B., & Collisson, E. W. (2010). Avian influenza viral nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin proteins induce chicken CD8+ memory T lymphocytes. Virology, 399(2), 231–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2009.12.029