Smart regulation

  • Gunningham N
  • Sinclair D
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Gunningham et al. (1998) first advocated the concept of ‘smart regulation’ in a book of that title in 1998. Subsequently, the concept has been refined in various publications by Gunningham and Sinclair (1999a, 1999b, 2002). The term refers to a form of regulatory pluralism that embraces flexible, imaginative and innovative forms of social control. In doing so, it harnesses governments as well as business and third parties. For example, it encompasses self-regulation and co-regulation, using commercial interests and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) (such as peak bodies) as regulatory surrogates, together with improving the effectiveness and efficiency of more conventional forms of




Gunningham, N., & Sinclair, D. (2017). Smart regulation. In Regulatory Theory (pp. 133–148). ANU Press.

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