Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The<br />identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate<br />receptor (NMDA-R), which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms,<br />has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also<br />suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide<br />range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting<br />ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated<br />potassium channel complex (VGKC complex),<br />-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R),<br />-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R) and dopamine receptor (DR) were<br />studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the<br />seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of<br />autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for<br />the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the<br />presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been<br />proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter<br />efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and<br />animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these<br />autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of<br />neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders:<br />psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and<br />attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.
Hoffmann, C., Zong, S., Mané-Damas, M., Molenaar, P., Losen, M., & Martinez-Martinez, P. (2016). Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Antibodies, 5(2), 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5020009