Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men

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Abstract

Aims: To prospectively investigate the association between self-reported psychosocial stress and long-term cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in a population-based cohort. Methods and results: The Malmö Preventive Project is a population-based screening and intervention programme for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Between 1974 and 1980, a total of 13,609 (2741 women) individuals, mean age 45 years, had self-reported chronic stress determined by questionnaire. CV morbidity and mortality were followed up in national registries. Median follow-up time was 21 years. The risk ratio (RR) for a fatal or nonfatal CV incident in the men and women of the group reporting chronic stress was 1.27 (95% CI 1.15-1.39). After stepwise adjustments for known CV risk factors, the RR was reduced to 1.14 (1.02-1.28). The highest RR was found for fatal stroke in men reporting chronic stress, 2.04 (1.07-3.88). For women alone, there was no significant increase in risk after adjustments. Conclusion: Self-reported chronic stress is an independent risk factor for CVD, particularly fatal stroke, in middle-aged men; it continues to be a risk factor after adjustment for several other known risk factors. The adjustment itself might reflect mechanisms whereby psychosocial stress directly or indirectly exerts its effects on the body, indicating a possible over-adjustment. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The European Society of Cardiology.

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APA

Öhlin, B., Nilsson, P. M., Nilsson, J. Å., & Berglund, G. (2004). Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men. European Heart Journal, 25(10), 867–873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2004.03.003

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