This paper develops a single wholesaler and multi retailers mixture inventory distribution model for a single item involving controllable lead-time with backorder and lost sales. The retailers purchase their items from the wholesaler in lots at some intervals throughout the year to meet the customers' demand. Not to loose the demands, the retailers offer a price discount to the customers on the stock-out items. Here, it is assumed that the lead-time demands of retailers are uncertain in both stochastic and fuzzy sense, i.e., these are simultaneously random and imprecise. To implement this behavior of the lead-time demands, at first, these demands are assumed to be random, say following a normal distribution. With these random demands, the expected total cost for each retailer is obtained. Now, the mean lead-time demands (which are crisp ones) of the retailers are fuzzified. This fuzzy nature of the lead-time demands implies that the annual average demands of the retailers must be fuzzy numbers, suppose these are triangular fuzzy numbers. Using signed distance technique for defuzzification, the estimate of total costs for each retailer is derived. Therefore, the problem is reduced to optimize the crisp annual costs of wholesaler and retailers separately. The multi-objective model is solved using Global Criteria method. Numerical illustrations have been made with the help of an example taking two retailers into consideration. Mathematical analyses have been made for global pareto-optimal solutions of the multi-objective optimization problem. Sensitivity analyses have been made on backorder ratio and pareto-optimal solutions for wholesaler and different retailers are compared graphically. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rong, M., Mahapatra, N. K., & Maiti, M. (2008). A multi-objective wholesaler-retailers inventory-distribution model with controllable lead-time based on probabilistic fuzzy set and triangular fuzzy number. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 32(12), 2670–2685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2007.09.026