Cross-border integration in Europe is a complex and multifaceted process, which has contrasted impacts on border regions. In order to contribute to better depict it, this paper provides, with the help of statistical indicators, a systematic and multidimensional analysis of cross-border integration along all the EU internal borders. It highlights the similarities and discrepancies that can be observed between the different European regions with regards to the intensity of cross-border practices (the functional dimension of cross-border integration), the level of mutual social trust between border populations (the ideational dimension), and the involvement of stakeholders in cross-border cooperation projects (the institutional dimension). The different patterns that emerge from this analysis show that there can be no unique cross-border cooperation strategy at the EU scale to accompany the dismantlement of EU internal borders.
Durand, F., & Decoville, A. (2020). A multidimensional measurement of the integration between European border regions. Journal of European Integration, 42(2), 163–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2019.1657857