Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) are considered to be a potentially sustainable alternative to conventional vehicles for private transport and a way of balancing intermittent generation from renewable energy sources (RES). Using RES for electric mobility would be superior to all available fossil generation alternatives in terms of emissions and efficient energy conversion. To quantify the marginal energy from RES used, two charging strategies last trip charging and optimized demand-side management (DSM) with dynamic pricing are investigated for a German long-term high RES power mix scenario. The results for both charging cases indicate that the power demand for PEVs will not be met by RES. For last trip charging 1.40% comes from RES. In terms of DSM this share increases to 7.38% but results in higher overall CO<inf>2</inf> emissions because for Germany coal provides the lowest cost fossil power. Hence DSM charging reduces peak load and helps to balance RES generation but is contrary to the original idea of clean transportation because of higher marginal emissions caused by the utilisation of coal. To account for contractual arrangements allowing consumers to directly purchase RES electricity, a second scenario with additional installed RES capacity is analysed. Because of the high RES share of over 50 % a complete usage of the RES is not possible and a small fraction of power must still be provided by dispatchable power plants. For the second scenario, DSM charging also allows for an increased use of RES compared to last trip charging (99 % versus 90% RES). In addition, total marginal CO<inf>2</inf> emissions are lower and DSM helps to balance the ramping of RES. Therefore, it is concluded that for Germany the installation of additional RES and DSM charging would guarantee clean transportation using electric vehicles.
Dallinger, D., Wietschel, M., & Santini, D. J. (2012). Effect of demand response on the marginal electricity used by plug-in electric vehicles. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 5(3), 730–738. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj5030730