Quantum electrodynamics predicts that photons undergo one-loop scattering. The combined effect of this on the behaviour of a photon gas for temperatures above ∼ 1010 K results in a softening of the equation of state. We calculate the effect this has on the effective equation of state in the early universe, taking into account all the species of the Standard Model. The change to the dynamics of the early universe is discussed. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clarkson, C., & Marklund, M. (2008). Photon gas dynamics in the early universe. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, 659(1–2), 54–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2007.10.049