Background. This porcine model was designed to develop a minimally invasive method for internal mammary artery (IMA) grafting using an anterior mediastinal approach and without routine use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods. Assessment was made of IMA mobilization through a small parasternal incision, the feasibility of coronary artery grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass using this approach, and conditions for oh-pump bypass grafting. Results. In group 1, 6 pigs underwent IMA mobilization through a 5-cm horizontal midparasternal incision. Of the 2 group 2 pigs, 1 underwent IMA grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery and the other, bilateral IMA grafting to the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries using femoral-vessel cardiopulmonary bypass. In group 3, 4 of 10 pigs had successful off-pump grafting during retrograde regional coronary venous perfusion of arterial blood. Retrograde coronary venous perfusion could not be established in the other 6 pigs, and attempts at off-pump grafting failed. Conclusions. The study demonstrates that coronary artery grafting with the IMA by this minimally invasive off-pump method is feasible, although it draws attention to areas of concern and potential methods of correction. The model provides a realistic and important learning platform for the surgical issues involved with this minimally invasive technique.
Robinson, M. C., Gross, D. R., Thielmeier, K. A., Hill, B. B., & Zeman, W. F. (1997). Development of a minimally invasive technique for coronary revascularization in a porcine model. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 64(1), 64–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(97)00128-8