Mathematical modelling plays an important role in understanding the dynamics of transmissible infections, as information about the drivers of infectious disease outbreaks can help inform health care planning and interventions. This paper provides some background about the mathematics of infectious disease modelling. Using a common childhood infection as a case study, age structures in compartmental differential equation models are explored. The qualitative characteristics of the numerical results for different models are discussed, and the benefits of incorporating age structures in these models are examined. This research demonstrates that, for the SIR-type model considered, the inclusion of age structures does not change the overall qualitative dynamics predicted by that model. Focussing on only a single age class then simplifies model analysis. However, age differentiation remains useful for simulating age-dependent intervention strategies such as vaccination.
Hogan, A. B., Glass, K., Moore, H. C., & Anderssen, R. S. (2016). Age Structures in Mathematical Models for Infectious Diseases, with a Case Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (pp. 105–116). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-55342-7_9