Objective: We evaluated the incidence of aorto-oesophageal (AEF) and aortobronchial (ABF) fistulae after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and investigated their clinical features, determinants, therapeutic options and results. Methods: We conducted a voluntary national survey among Italian universities and hospital centres with a thoracic endovascular programme. Results: Thirty-nine centres were contacted, and 17 participated. Of the patients who underwent TEVAR between 1998 and 2008, 19/1113 (1.7%) developed AEF/ABF. Among indications to TEVAR, aortic pseudo-aneurysm was associated with the development of late AEF/ABF (P = 0.009). Further, emergent and complicated procedures resulted in increased risk of AEF/ABF (P = 0.008 and P < 0.001, respectively). Eight patients were treated conservatively, all of whom died within 30 days. Eleven patients underwent AEF/ABF surgical treatment, with a perioperative mortality of 64% (7/11). At a mean follow-up of 17.7 ± 12.5 months, overall survival was 16% (3/19). Conclusions: The incidence of AEF and ABF following TEVAR is not negligible, and is comparable to that following open repair. This finding warrants an ad hoc long-term follow-up after TEVAR, particularly in patients submitted to emergent and complicated procedures. Both surgical and endovascular treatment of AEF/ABF are associated with high mortality. However, conservative treatment does not appear to be a viable option. © 2009 European Society for Vascular Surgery.
Chiesa, R., Melissano, G., Marone, E. M., Marrocco-Trischitta, M. M., & Kahlberg, A. (2010). Aorto-oesophageal and Aortobronchial Fistulae Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair: A National Survey. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 39(3), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2009.12.007