Medical iatrogenesis is at an all-time high with increasing deaths, disability, and costs compounded by unnecessary and ineffective surgeries despite the warnings from WHO, the US Public Health Service, and the Institute of Medicine. One area in particular, failed back surgeries, has drawn increasing attention by researchers due to disproved medical theories and surgical treatments. Paradoxically, while spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to achieve better results for this epidemic of low back pain in particular, medical and insurance programs often limit or boycott this inexpensive and effective treatment, indicating the solution to lowering medical costs and iatrogenesis now rests with political and economic factors primarily. © 2002 National University of Health Sciences.
Smith, J. C. (2002). Back surgery: Modern medical pitfall. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 1(1), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3467(07)60022-6