Bacterial inhibition potential of quaternised chitosan-coated VICRYL absorbable suture: An in vitro and in vivo study

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Abstract

Background/Objective As a widely used absorbable suture with antibacterial property, triclosan- coated polyglactin suture (Vicryl Plus) has been extensively utilized to reduce the occurrence rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) in orthopaedic surgery. However, the potential toxicity and side-effects of triclosan raised increasing concerns about its biological safety. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of quaternised chitosan-coated Vicryl suture (HV) both in vitro and in vivo. Methods In this study, a modified chitosan derivate, (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC), was coated over the surface of the absorbable Vicryl suture. Two standard bacteria strains, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC35984) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC43300), were selected to evaluate bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on the sutures at 6, 24 and 48 h in vitro. Additionally, human skin-derived fibroblasts cells were used to test the cytocompatibility of the sutures. Furtherly, sutures contaminated with methicillin-resistant S. aureus were implanted subcutaneously in SD rats in order to confirm the in vivo antibacterial performance and biocompatibility. Results We found that HACC-coated Vicryl suture (HV) exhibited significant anti-bacterial effects on the two tested strains. The bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on the surface of the HV sutures were found to be comparable to that of Vicryl Plus sutures (VP). Moreover, all the four tested sutures presented good cytocompatibility with human skin-derived fibroblasts cells. Histology and immunohistochemistry results indicated that the infections and inflammations were significantly inhibited around the HV and VP sutures. Conclusion In general, the present study demonstrated that the quaternised chitosan coating is a flexible and cost-effective alternative strategy to prevent the suture related surgical site infections in orthopaedic practices.

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Yang, Y., Yang, S. B., Wang, Y. G., Zhang, S. H., Yu, Z. F., & Tang, T. T. (2017). Bacterial inhibition potential of quaternised chitosan-coated VICRYL absorbable suture: An in vitro and in vivo study. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation, 8, 49–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2016.10.001

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