Objectives.: Percutaneous balloon valvotomy was studied retrospectively in newborns with critical pulmonary valve stenosis or atresia to assess its potential role as an alternative therapy to operation. Background.: Severe right ventricular outflow tract obstructions are life-threatening conditions requiring prostaglandin infusion immediately after birth and then relief of the valvular obstruction. To avoid surgical hazards at this age, it would be useful to extend to newborns the balloon valvotomy so effective in older patients. Methods.: Ninety-seven newborns (82 with critical pulmonary valve stenosis, 15 with atresia) underwent balloon valvotomy, provided that they had a well developed right ventricle, including an infundibulum close to the pulmonary artery. In patients with atresia, the outflow tract membrane had to be perforated with a wire needle or a radiofrequency probe. Results.: Balloon valvotomy could be performed in 81 patients and was effective in 77. It caused 3 fatal and 16 nonfatal complications. Ten patients with persistent poor right ventricular compliance despite an effective valvotomy required a surgical shunt. Among the 81 patients in whom the procedure could be performed, right ventricular surgery was avoided in 5 (55%) of the 9 patients with atresia (95% confidence interval [CI] 28% to 80%) and 55 (76%) of the 72 patients with stenosis (95% CI 66% to 86%) at the end of the follow-up period (9.7 years). Conclusions.: Balloon pulmonary valvotomy is not always feasible in newborns, but it is relatively safe and effective and should be considered a valid alternative to operation. © 1995 American College of Cardiology.
Gournay, V., Piéchaud, J. F., Delogu, A., Sidi, D., & Kachaner, J. (1995). Balloon valvotomy for critical stenosis or atresia of pulmonary valve in newborns. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 26(7), 1725–1731. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(95)00369-X