Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework. © Author(s) 2013.
Schmitter, E. D. (2013). Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site. Annales Geophysicae, 31(4), 765–773. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-31-765-2013