Nutcracker syndrome is caused by compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery where it passes in the fork formed at the bifurcation of these arteries. The phenomenon results in left renal venous hypertension. The syndrome is manifested by left flank and abdominal pain, with or without unilateral haematuria. Other common presentation is as 'pelvic congestion syndrome' characterized by symptoms of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, post-coital ache, lower abdominal pain, dysuria, pelvic, vulvar, gluteal or thigh varices and emotional disturbances. Likewise compression of the left renal vein can cause left renal-to-gonadal vein reflux resulting in lower limb varices and varicoceles in males. Its diagnosis is based on history and physical examination, basic lab tests to exclude other causes of haematuria, cystoscopy and ureteroscopy to confirm unilateral haematuria and exclude other causes of this sinister symptom. Sequence of imaging has more or less been rationalised to USS with Doppler studies, CT or MR angiography and finally phlebography with renal vein and IVC manometery to confirm the diagnosis. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, K., Sampath, R., & Khan, M. S. (2006, April). Current trends in the diagnosis and management of renal nutcracker syndrome: A review. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.05.045