Firearms-related injury and sex: A comparative National Trauma Database (NTDB) Study

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Background Existing study findings on firearms-related injury patterns are largely skewed towards males, who comprise the majority of this injury population. Given the paucity of existing data for females with these injuries, we aimed to elucidate the demographics, injury patterns, and outcomes of firearms-related injury in females compared with males in the USA. Materials and methods A 7-year (2013-2019) retrospective review of the National Trauma Database was conducted to identify all adult patients who suffered firearms-related injuries. Patients who were males were matched (1:1, caliper 0.2) to patients who were females by demographics, comorbidities, injury patterns and severity, and payment method, to compare differences in mortality and several other post-injury outcomes. Results There were 196 696 patients admitted after firearms-related injury during the study period. Of these patients, 23 379 (11.9%) were females, 23 378 of whom were successfully matched to a male counterpart. After matching, females had a lower rate of in-hospital mortality (18.6% vs. 20.0%, p<0.001), deep vein thrombosis (1.2% vs. 1.5%, p=0.014), and had a lower incidence of drug or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (0.2% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001) compared with males. Conclusion Female victims of firearms-related injuries experience lower rates of mortality and complications compared with males. Further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of these differences. Level of evidence Level III.




Zwemer, C., Kartiko, S., Forssten, M. P., Zebley, J. A., Hughes, J. D., Sarani, B., & Mohseni, S. (2023). Firearms-related injury and sex: A comparative National Trauma Database (NTDB) Study. Trauma Surgery and Acute Care Open, 8(1).

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