Safety of megadose of vitamin D in patients with nephrolithiasis

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Abstract

Objective: This article describes two patients with renal lithiasis who received a megadose of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) and had a good outcome. Methods: The first case reports a 74-year-old man with a long-term history of renal lithiasis and about four episodes of renal crisis. He was treated once with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. He also had a history of dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Laboratory tests demonstrated 25(OH)D of 28 ng/mL (normal range (nr): >30 ng/mL), normal lipid levels, creatinine of 1.1 mg/dL, and homocysteine of 26.6 mcmol/L (nr: 5–15 mcmol/L); parathyroid hormone (PTH) was high at 67.3 pg/mL (nr: 10–65 pg/mL), serum total calcium was 8.6 mg/dL, 24-h urinary calcium was 139 mg/d (normal range 100–300 mg/d), and urinary sediment was normal. He received 50 000 IU per week of vitamin D for 3 mo, and 25(OH)D increased to 36.6 ng/mL. Urinary calcium was 142 mg/d, PTH was 46.7 pg/mL, and serum calcium was 9.6 mg/dL. No renal crisis was perceived. He asked for an alternative form of medication since he usually would forget to take drugs. Vitamin D in a single dose of 600 000 IU intramuscular was prescribed. He was asked to increase water intake to 2 to 3 L/d. After 3 mo his 25(OH)D was 75.0 ng/mL, serum calcium was 9.2 mg/dL, urinary calcium was 148 mg/d, and PTH was 38.7 pg/mL. He had no episodes of lithiasis renal crisis. Folic acid and methylcobalamin were added, and homocysteine normalized. At follow-up 3 y later, the patient was asymptomatic, cardiologic evaluation was stable without any other renal lithiasis crises, 25(OH)D continued to be normal at 62 ng/mL, and he received a megadose of vitamin D every 6 mo. Renal ultrasound revealed only microlithiasis. The second case reports a 52-year-old man with a long-term history of renal lithiasis experienced since he was 30 y old, with three renal crisis episodes. He was treated with an extracorporeal shock wave three times. Laboratory tests demonstrated 25(OH)D 18 ng/mL, normal biochemistry, total serum calcium of 10.2 mg/dL, 24-h urinary calcium of 154 mg/d, and normal urinary sediment. He received 50 000 IU per week of 25(OH)D for 3 mo, and 25(OH)D increased to 40.3 ng/mL. Urinary calcium was 167 mg/d, PTH was 35.3 pg/mL, and serum calcium was 10.1 mg/dL. No renal crisis was perceived. He asked for an alternative form of medication, and vitamin D in a single dose of 600 000 IU intramuscular was prescribed. He was asked to increase water intake to 2 to 3 L/d. After 3 mo, his 25(OH)D was 82.0 ng/mL, serum calcium was 9.6 mg/dL, urinary calcium was 175 mg/d, and PTH was 35.3 pg/mL. The renal ultrasound was unchanged. He had no episodes of lithiasis renal crisis. At follow-up 4 y later, the patient was asymptomatic without any other renal lithiasis crises, a renal ultrasound revealed a reduction of calculi size to microlithiasis, 25(OH)D continues normal, and he received a megadose of this vitamin every 4 mo. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a megadose of vitamin D used in patients with nephrolithiasis. Furthermore, this shows the safety of this strategy in patients without hypercalciuria.

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de Carvalho, J. F., & Churilov, L. P. (2021). Safety of megadose of vitamin D in patients with nephrolithiasis. Nutrition, 8788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111201

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