Fiber optic sensors for the measurement of a diverse range of physical and chemical parameters based on a wide variety of sensing approaches have been developed over the past 15 years. The sensors range from simple intensity-based systems where the amount of light coupled through a sensing element is monitored as a measure of the parameter of interest, to those where the phase of coherent light passing along a fiber in an interferometer configuration is detected. A unique advantage of fiber sensor technology is the ability to create distributed and multiplexed sensor networks. The use of such technologies for the distributed sensing of strain in structures is currently generating considerable interest, as the fiber can be embedded in a range of structural materials.
Kersey, A. D., Davis, M. A., Berkoff, T. A., & Jones, R. T. (1997). Fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring. In Instrumentation in the Aerospace Industry : Proceedings of the International Symposium (Vol. 43, pp. 747–755). Instrument Society of America.