Macrophages promote both injury and repair after myocardial infarction, but discriminating functions within mixed populations remains challenging. Here we used fate mapping, parabiosis and single-cell transcriptomics to demonstrate that at steady state, TIMD4+LYVE1+MHC-IIloCCR2− resident cardiac macrophages self-renew with negligible blood monocyte input. Monocytes partially replaced resident TIMD4–LYVE1–MHC-IIhiCCR2− macrophages and fully replaced TIMD4−LYVE1−MHC-IIhiCCR2+ macrophages, revealing a hierarchy of monocyte contribution to functionally distinct macrophage subsets. Ischemic injury reduced TIMD4+ and TIMD4– resident macrophage abundance, whereas CCR2+ monocyte-derived macrophages adopted multiple cell fates within infarcted tissue, including those nearly indistinguishable from resident macrophages. Recruited macrophages did not express TIMD4, highlighting the ability of TIMD4 to track a subset of resident macrophages in the absence of fate mapping. Despite this similarity, inducible depletion of resident macrophages using a Cx3cr1-based system led to impaired cardiac function and promoted adverse remodeling primarily within the peri-infarct zone, revealing a nonredundant, cardioprotective role of resident cardiac macrophages.
Dick, S. A., Macklin, J. A., Nejat, S., Momen, A., Clemente-Casares, X., Althagafi, M. G., … Epelman, S. (2019). Self-renewing resident cardiac macrophages limit adverse remodeling following myocardial infarction. Nature Immunology, 20(1), 29–39. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-018-0272-2