One of the obstacles to the wider practical use of the multisensor systems for gas and liquid analysis-electronic noses and tongues, is the limited temporal validity of the multivariate calibration models. Frequent recalibration of multisensor systems is often excessively costly and time consuming due to the large number of necessary reference sample and their limited availability. There are several circumstances that can invalidate multivariate calibration model. The most common problem in the case of sensor systems is temporarily drift or gradual change of sensor characteristics occurring during sensor exploitation. Another common situation is a change in the composition of the analyzed samples that also alters sensor response due to the matrix effects. Finally, a necessity to replace sensors in the array or to transfer calibration model from one sensor set or one type of sensors to the other can arise. As an alternative to the recalibration of the sensor system using full set of calibration samples, drift correction and calibration update has been proposed. The main approaches can be summarized as follows: - Drift correction that consists in modeling sensor temporarily drift or drift direction using a series of measurements and then using it for correcting new data. - Calibration standardization that aims to correct new measured data by eliminating new variation. For this purpose, a relationship between two experimental conditions is established using a reduced set of samples measured at both conditions (standardization subset). - Calibration update that consists in incorporation of new sources of variance in the calibration model by recalculating it using initial calibration samples and reduced set of samples measured at new conditions. The latter can be either standard or unknown samples. This paper presents an overview of different methods reported for the drift correction and calibration update of the electronic noses and tongue and discussion of the practical aspects of their implementation.
Rudnitskaya, A. (2018). Calibration update and drift correction for electronic noses and tongues. Frontiers in Chemistry. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2018.00433