A structural optimization algorithm is developed for truss and beam structures under stress-displacement or frequency constraints. The algorithm combines the mathematical programming based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) technique and the finite element technique based on the Integrated Force Method. A new approach based on the single value decomposition technique has been developed to derive the compatibility matrix required in the force method. Benchmark case studies illustrate the procedure and allow the results obtained to be compared with those reported in the literature. It is shown that the computational effort required by the force method is significantly lower than that of the displacement method and in some cases such as structural optimization problems with multiple frequency constraints, the analysis procedure (force or displacement method) significantly affects the final optimum design and the structural optimization based on the force method may result in a lighter design. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sedaghati, R. (2005). Benchmark case studies in structural design optimization using the force method. In International Journal of Solids and Structures (Vol. 42, pp. 5848–5871). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2005.03.030