The Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, Massachusetts) device is increasingly used for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to treat acute severe cardiogenic shock (CS). Initial and continued determination of the appropriate degree of MCS is challenging. This study evaluates predictors of mortality in patients treated with the Impella for acute severe CS and outcomes associated with prolonged Impella use. This retrospective single-center study included 204 patients treated with the Impella 2.5, Impella CP, or Impella 5.0 from 2011 to 2018 for acute severe CS. The primary end point was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 45.1%. Nonsurvivors had a lower initial pH (7.24 vs 7.32, hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, p <0.0001), lower serum CO2 (19.1 vs 21.3 mmol/L, HR 1.08, p = 0.002), higher lactate (6.8 vs 3.3 mmol/L, HR 1.17, p <0.0001), and used a greater number of vasopressors and inotropes (4.3 vs 2.6, HR 1.44, p <0.0001). Patients with the Impella >4 days (n = 45) had a longer intensive care unit stay (12.6 vs 6.9 days, p <0.001), longer total hospital stay (16.4 vs 11.6 days, p = 0.03), longer mechanical ventilation use (7.8 vs 4.4 days, p = 0.002), and trend toward increased mortality (57.8 vs 41.5%, p = 0.051). In conclusion, in patients treated with the Impella for acute severe CS, initial biochemical parameters and need for vasopressors and inotropes are significant predictors of mortality that can serve as valuable indicators of whether the Impella or higher level of MCS is more appropriate. Patients treated with the Impella beyond 4 days have poorer outcomes and may benefit from escalation of care.
Rohm, C. L., Gadidov, B., Leitson, M., Ray, H. E., & Prasad, R. (2019). Predictors of Mortality and Outcomes of Acute Severe Cardiogenic Shock Treated with the Impella Device. American Journal of Cardiology, 124(4), 499–504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.05.039