Congenital anomalies of the superior vena cava are rare and often coexist with other cardiac abnormalities. In this report, we present a case of absent bilateral superior vena cava with no associated cardiac anomaly. Blood from the arms, head, and upper torso returned to the right atrium through the azygos vein and the inferior vena cava, mimicking chronic superior vena cava obstruction. © 2001 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Saunders, R. N., Richens, D. R., & Morris, G. K. (2001). Bilateral absence of the superior vena cava. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 71(6), 2041–2043. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(00)02562-5