Treatment for osteochondral defects remains a great challenge. Although several clinical strategies have been developed for management of osteochondral defects, the reconstruction of both cartilage and subchondral bone has proved to be difficult due to their different physiological structures and functions. Considering the restriction of cartilage to self-healing and the different biological properties in osteochondral tissue, new therapy strategies are essential to be developed. This review will focus on the latest developments of bioactive scaffolds, which facilitate the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage. Besides, the topic will also review the basic anatomy, strategies and challenges for osteochondral reconstruction, the selection of cells, biochemical factors and bioactive materials, as well as the design and preparation of bioactive scaffolds. Specifically, we summarize the most recent developments of single-type bioactive scaffolds for simultaneously regenerating cartilage and subchondral bone. Moreover, the future outlook of bioactive scaffolds in osteochondral tissue engineering will be discussed. This review offers a comprehensive summary of the most recent trend in osteochondral defect reconstruction, paving the way for the bioactive scaffolds in clinical therapy. The translational potential of this article: This review summaries the latest developments of single-type bioactive scaffolds for regeneration of osteochondral defects. We also highlight a new possible translational direction for cartilage formation by harnessing bioactive ions and propose novel paradigms for subchondral bone regeneration in application of bioceramic scaffolds.
Deng, C., Chang, J., & Wu, C. (2019, April 1). Bioactive scaffolds for osteochondral regeneration. Journal of Orthopaedic Translation. Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2018.11.006