Calcium-dependent transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze protein cross-linking and/or attachment of primary amines in a variety of organisms. Mammalian TGs are implicated in multiple biological events such as skin formation, blood coagulation, and extracellular matrix stabilization. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been used as a model fish to investigate the physiological functions of mammalian proteins. By analysis of the medaka genome, we found seven TGs orthologues, some of which apparently corresponded to the mammalian TG isozymes, TG1, TG2, and Factor XIII. All orthologues had preserved amino acid residues essential for enzymatic activity in their deduced primary structures. In this study, we analyzed biochemical properties of two orthologues (OlTGK1 and OlTGK2) of mammalian epithelium-specific TG (TG1) that are significantly expressed at the transcriptional level. Using purified recombinant proteins for OlTGK1 and OlTGK2, we characterized their catalytic reactions. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses of fish sections revealed higher expression in the pancreas (OTGK1), intervertebral disk (OlTGK2) and pharyngeal teeth (OlTGK2) as well as in the skin epidermis.
Kikuta, A., Furukawa, E., Ogawa, R., Suganuma, N., Saitoh, M., Nishimaki, T., … Hitomi, K. (2015). Biochemical characterization of medaka (Oryzias latipes) transglutaminases, OlTGK1 and OlTGK2, as orthologues of human keratinocyte-type transglutaminase. PLoS ONE, 10(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144194