Background: Genitourinary (GU) cancers are a major healthcare issue in modern oncology. In the last decade many efforts have been made to develop new treatment options but with the possible exception of renal cell carcinoma, very few steps ahead have been taken. At the same time, a wide variety of molecular markers, potentially helpful in identifying patient subpopulation most likely to benefit from a specific treatment have been identified. Our goal is to clarify if biomarkers could be used at present to personalize treatment for GU cancers. Materials and methods: Literature was search using PubMed and EMBASE using different terms and combinations regarding possible prognostic and predictive markers in renal, prostate and urothelial cancers. Results: 3546 articles were retrieved. After excluding duplications, preclinical studies and factors without possible predictive value 654 publications remain. N-telopeptide, HER2/neu, EGFR, and p53 in prostate cancer, sVEGF-A for RCC and EMMPRIN and Survivin in urothelial cancer were among those identified. After a careful examination of published data, none of them reached a sufficient evidence to be suggested for use outside of clinical trials. Conclusions: To date any reliable biomarkers has been validated for tailored treatments approaches in GU cancer. Future studies focusing on this issue are urgently needed. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bracarda, S., Sisani, M., Del Buono, S., Ishiwa, O., & Montagnani, F. (2012, December 1). Biologic tools to personalize treatment in genitourinary cancers. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. Elsevier Ireland Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2010.09.008