It is fairly well understood that frozen shoulder involves several stages, which reflect the series of process from capsular inflammation and fibrosis to spontaneous resolution of this fibrosis. However, the underlying pathophysiologic process remains poorly determined. For this reason, management of frozen shoulder remains controversial. Determining the pathophysiological processes of frozen shoulder is a pivotal milestone in the development of novel treatment for patients with frozen shoulder. This article reviews what is known to date about the biological pathophysiology of frozen shoulder. Although articles for the pathophysiology of frozen shoulder provide inconsistent and inconclusive results, they have suggested both inflammation and fibrosis mediated by cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, and immune cells. Proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors released from immune cells control the action of fibroblast and matrix remodeling is regulated by the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. To improve our understanding of the disease continuum, better characterizing the biology of these processes at clearly defined stages will be needed. Further basic studies that use standardized protocols are required to more narrowly identify the role of cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, and immune cells. The results of these studies will provide needed clarity into the control mechanism of the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder and help identify new therapeutic targets for its treatment.
Cho, C.-H., Song, K.-S., Kim, B.-S., Kim, D. H., & Lho, Y.-M. (2018). Biological Aspect of Pathophysiology for Frozen Shoulder. BioMed Research International, 2018, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7274517