Objectives: Febrile urinary tract infections (fUTI) can often be treated safely with oral antimicrobials in an outpatient setting. However, a minority of patients develop complications that may progress into septic shock. An accurate assessment of disease severity upon emergency department (ED) presentation is therefore crucial in order to guide the most appropriate triage and treatment decisions. Methods: Consecutive patients were enrolled with presumptive fUTI across 7 EDs in the Netherlands. The biomarkers mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and a clinical score (PRACTICE), were compared in their ability to predict a clinically severe course of fUTI, initial hospital admission and subsequent readmission using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves. Results: Biomarker concentrations were measured in 313 patients, with 259 (83%) hospitalized upon ED presentation, and 54 (17%) treated as outpatients. Of these outpatients, 12 (22%) were later hospitalized. MR-proADM had the highest diagnostic accuracy for predicting a complicated fUTI (AUROC [95% CI]: 0.86 [0.79–0.92]), followed by PCT (AUROC [95% CI]: 0.69 [0.58–0.80]). MR-proADM concentrations were unique in being significantly elevated in patients directly admitted and in outpatients requiring subsequent hospitalization, compared to those completing treatment at home. A virtual triage algorithm with an MR-proADM cut-off of 0.80 nmol/L resulted in a hospitalization rate of 66%, with only 2% secondary admissions. Conclusion: MR-proADM could accurately predict a severe course in patients with fUTI, and identify greater patient numbers who could be safely managed as outpatients. An initial assessment on ED presentation may focus resources to patients with highest disease severities.
Stalenhoef, J. E., van Nieuwkoop, C., Wilson, D. C., van der Starre, W. E., Delfos, N. M., Leyten, E. M. S., … van Dissel, J. T. (2018). Biomarker guided triage can reduce hospitalization rate in community acquired febrile urinary tract infection. Journal of Infection, 77(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.05.007