We sought to examine whether cyclic tensile strain (CTS) regulates the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) under inflammatory conditions, and whether these effects of CTS are sustained. Rat temporomandibular joint disc cells (TDC) were exposed to CTS in the presence or absence of interleukin (IL)-1beta for 4 and 24 h. Cells were also stimulated with IL-1beta for 24 h while being subjected to CTS only for the initial 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h or the entire 24 h incubation time. Furthermore, cells were incubated with IL-1beta for 24, 36, or 48 h while being exposed to CTS only for the initial 8 h. Gene expression of TNF-alpha, its receptors, and iNOS was analyzed by RT-PCR, whereas protein synthesis was determined by ELISA for TNF-alpha, immunofluorescence for TNFRs, and Griess reaction for nitric oxide. CTS inhibited the IL-1beta-stimulated synthesis of TNF-alpha, TNFR2, and iNOS. TNFR1 was constitutively expressed but not regulated by IL-1beta or CTS. Application of CTS for only 1 or 2 h during a 24 h incubation with IL-1beta was sufficient to inhibit IL-1beta-induced upregulation of TNF-alpha, TNFR2, and iNOS. However, for maximal inhibition of these genes a longer exposure of CTS was required. These findings are the first to show that biomechanical signals regulate the expression of TNFR2 but not TNFR1 under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the antiinflammatory effects of biomechanical signals on TDC are maintained for prolonged periods of time but are transient. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deschner, J., Rath-Deschner, B., Wypasek, E., Anghelina, M., Sjostrom, D., & Agarwal, S. (2007). Biomechanical strain regulates TNFR2 but not TNFR1 in TMJ cells. Journal of Biomechanics, 40(7), 1541–1549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.07.013