A biological system for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and uptake of copper from wastewater, using dead biomass of Hypocrea lixii was analyzed and described for the first time. The equilibrium and kinetics investigation of the biosorption of copper onto dead, dried and live biomass of fungus were performed as a function of initial metal concentration, pH, temperature, agitation and inoculum volume. The high biosorption capacity was observed for dead biomass, completed within 60 min of contact, at pH 5.0, temperature of 40°C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with a maximum copper biosorption of 19.0 mg g-1. The equilibrium data were better described using the Langmuir isotherm and kinetic analysis indicated that copper biosorption follows a pseudo-second-order model. The average size, morphology and location of NPs biosynthesized by the fungus were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NPs were mainly spherical, with an average size of 24.5 nm, and were synthesized extracellularly. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the presence of metallic copper particles. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study revealed that the amide groups interact with the particles, which was accountable for the stability of NPs. This method further confirmed the presence of proteins as stabilizing and capping agents surrounding the copper NPs. These studies demonstrate that dead biomass of Hypocrea lixii provides an economic and technically feasible option for bioremediation of wastewater and is a potential candidate for industrial-scale production of copper NPs. © 2013 Salvadori et al.
Salvadori, M. R., Lepre, L. F., Ando, R. A., Oller Do Nascimento, C. A., & Corrêa, B. (2013). Biosynthesis and uptake of copper nanoparticles by dead biomass of Hypocrea lixii isolated from the metal mine in the Brazilian Amazon region. PLoS ONE, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080519