Background: Human β-tryptase is a mast cell specific trypsin-like serine protease that is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diverse allergic and inflammatory disorders like asthma and psoriasis. The recently resolved crystal structure revealed that the enzymatically active tetramer consists of four quasi-identical monomers. The spatial display of the four identical active sites represents an ideal basis for the rational design of bivalent inhibitors. Results: Based on modeling experiments homobivalent inhibitors were constructed using (i) 6A,6D-dideoxy-6A,6D-diamino-β-cyclodextrin as a rigid template to bridge the space between the two pairs of identical active sites and (ii) 3-(aminomethyl)benzene as a headgroup to occupy the arginine/lysine specific S1 subsites. A comparative analysis of the inhibitory potencies of synthetic constructs that differ in size and type of the spacer between headgroup and template revealed that the construct contained two 3-(aminomethyl)benzenesulfonyl-glycine groups linked to the 6A,6D-diamino groups of β-cyclodextrin as an almost ideal bivalent inhibitor with a cooperativity factor of 1.9 vs. the ideal value of 2. The bivalent binding mode is supported by the inhibitor/tetramer ratio of 2:1 required for inactivation of tryptase and by X-ray analysis of the inhibitor/tryptase complex. Conclusion: The results obtained with the rigid cyclodextrin template underlined the importance of a minimal loss of conformational entropy in bivalent binding, but also showed the limitations imposed by such rigid core molecules in terms of optimal occupancy of binding sites and thus of enthalpic strains in bidentate binding modes. The main advantage of bivalent inhibitors is their high selectivity for the target enzyme that can be achieved utilizing the principle of multivalency. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Schaschke, N., Matschiner, G., Zettl, F., Marquardt, U., Bergner, A., Bode, W., … Moroder, L. (2001). Bivalent inhibition of human β-tryptase. Chemistry and Biology, 8(4), 313–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1074-5521(01)00011-4