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Physical exercise and sports increase muscular mass and the remodelling process of bones. The increment of bone depends on the type and the quality of sport. Short-term high-performance activities such as sprint, tennis, fencing lead to increased bone mineral density as well as weight lifting or heavy athletics. Swimming, bicycling, walking are associated with good musculature conditioning without an increase of bone mass. The effects on the bone by performing endurance activities are controversially discussed. Excessive sport leads to an increase of fatigue fractures. Low bone mass may result from hormonal disregulation in female athletes.

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Felsenberg, D., & Gowin, W. (1998). Bone densitometry: Applications in sports-medicine. European Journal of Radiology, 28(2), 150–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0720-048X(97)00113-7

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